EDIC - EtCO2 gradient

EDIC – EtCO2 gradient

Regarding the relationship of end tidal CO2 (ETCO2) and PaCO2, which of the following statements is FALSE?:
a) In healthy lungs the ETCO2 is approximately 0.5 kPa greater than PaCO2.
b) The difference between ETCO2 and PaCO2 increases when body temperature decreases.
c) The difference between ETCO2 and PaCO2 is reduced in pregnancy.
d) A reduction in pulmonary blood flow of 50% would produce approximately a 50% reduction in ETCO2.
e) In COPD the ETCO2 and PaCO2 difference can be reduced by reducing ventilatory frequency and increasing tidal volume.
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